In collaboration with Dr. Barr, who discovered the gene involved in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, Dr. Womer and others have used the chromosomal changes in sarcomas to determine response to treatment.
The angiogenic factor midkine is regulated by dexamethasone and retinoic acid during alveolarization and in alveolar epithelial cells.
The rise in alveolar and blood CO2 tensions produces at the kidneys, as shown by the work of Pitts47 and of Gilman48, a retention of bicarbonate, thus further raising blood and tissue CO2 levels, though of course relieving in part the uncompensated gaseous acidosis.
Currently, treatment is based on whether a patient's cancer is classified as alveolar or embryonal, which is determined by the appearance of a tumour sample under the microscope.
Wetsel and his colleague Dachun Wang, M.D., an IMM instructor, used a genetic selection procedure they created to generate a type of lung cell known as alveolar epithelial type II, which secretes surfactant, a substance that keeps the lung inflated, and can turn into another important lung cell that regulates the transfer of oxygen into the blood and the removal of carbon dioxide.
But a new study shows a different approach that targets cells known as alveolar macrophages to deliver the gene therapy to the lungs of mice with this form of inherited emphysema was successful in treating the condition for two years.
The fox tapeworm is spread to humans in canine feces and can cause a fatal disease of the liver known as alveolar echinococcosis.